|Frank Costello was known for his concern about education.|
"You will earn more if you go to college," a universal American adage proclaims.
It now seems to hold true for more types of people than most of you would likely expect. Specifically, some British and American academics include Mafia members in that category.
A recent research paper titled Returns to education in criminal organizations: Did going to college help Michael Corleone? was issued by University of Essex and University of California at Merced researchers who parsed 1940 United States Census data and FBI information to compare more than 700 mobsters with non-affiliated Italian-American men from the same locals. Among their key findings: Mafiosi tend to have less college but ultimately wind up worth more than non-connected college-graduates (at least from the 1930s to the 1960s, which is the time period the research focused on. Also, the initial report (see below) reveals the FBN, not the FBI, as the law enforcement agency that provided data.)
Read about the FBN in two-part series about formation of the witness protection program.